Kindergarten

WHAT KINDERGARTEN WATERFORD WILDCATS
SHOULD KNOW


Kindergarten “Oh, magic hour, when a child first knows she can read printed words!” – Betty Smith Instruction at this grade level should be characterized by a focus on explicit and systematic approaches to teaching phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. 

Foundational Skills 
ELA.K.F.1 Learning and Applying Foundational Reading Skills Print Concept

ELA.K.F.1.1: Demonstrate knowledge of the basic concepts of print.
            a. Locate a printed word on a page.  
         
   b. Distinguish letters from words within sentences
           
 c. Match print to speech to demonstrate that language is represented by print
           
 d. Identify parts of a book (front cover, back cover, title page).
         
   e. Move top to bottom and left to right on the printed page; returning to the
                beginning
 of next line.
         
   f. Identify all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabett
            
g. Recognize that print conveys specific meaning and pictures may support meaning.

Benchmark Clarifications: Clarification 1

Matching print to speech involves making a one-to-one correspondence between a spoken word and the print on the page. This can be accomplished by having the child point to each word in a sentence as it is read by an adult. Phonological Awareness

   
ELA.K.F.1.2: Demonstrate phonological awareness.
   a. Blend and segment syllables in spoken words.
   b. Identify and produce alliterative and rhyming words.
   c. Blend and segment onset and rimes of single-syllable words.
   d. Identify the initial, medial, and final sound of spoken words.
   e. Add or delete phonemes at the beginning or end of a spoken word and say the resulting 
       word.
   f. Segment and blend phonemes in single-syllable spoken words. Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1

Phonological awareness only refers to what can be done orally at the syllable, onset-rime, and phoneme levels. It does not involve print or letter knowledge. 27 Phonics and Word Analysis

ELA.K.F.1.3: Use knowledge of grade-appropriate phonics and word-analysis skills to decode words accurately.
   a. Demonstrate knowledge of the most frequent sound for each consonant.
   b. Demonstrate knowledge of the short and long sounds for the five major vowels.
   c. Decode consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words.
   d. Encode consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) words.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: Phonics refers to the relationship between graphemes (letters or letter combinations) and phonemes (speech sounds).

Clarification 2: Students will decode decodable high frequency words appropriate to the grade level.

See K.F.1.4 and Dolch and Fry word lists. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable or not, with automaticity. Fluency
ELA.K.F.1.4: Recognize and read with automaticity grade-level high frequency words.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: See Dolch and Fry word lists.

Clarification 2: Many of the high frequency words at this grade level are either irregularly spelled and therefore not decodable or are temporarily irregular, meaning that students have not yet learned the phonics rule that would enable them to decode the word. Those words that are decodable should be introduced to students using appropriate phonics rules.


See K.F.1.3. Students will read grade-level appropriate high frequency words, decodable
                             or not, with automaticity. Reading
ELA.K.R.1 Reading Prose and Poetry Literary Elements
ELA.K.R.1.1: Describe the main character(s), setting, and important events in a story.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: In describing the main character, students can describe appearance, actions, feelings, and thoughts of the character. Students will explain what in the text their description is based on.

Clarification 2: For setting, students will discuss where the events of the story are happening. The time element of setting should only be addressed in texts where it is explicitly indicated.

Clarification 3: Descriptions can be oral, either in response to a question or through discussion. 28 Perspective and Point of View

ELA.K.R.1.3: Explain the roles of author and illustrator of a story. Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: Students will explain that the author writes the words and the illustrator creates the pictures, recognizing that sometimes one person does both jobs, as in Dr. Seuss’ Hop on Pop where Dr. Seuss performs both roles.

Clarification 2: Students should also explain that both authors and illustrators contribute to the meaning of the text. Poetry


ELA.K.R.1.4: Identify rhyme in a poem. Benchmark Clarifications: Clarification 1: This benchmark builds on the skills from the phonological awareness benchmark

ELA.K.F.1.2(a): Identify and produce alliterative and rhyming words. The expectation is that students identify rhyming words in a poem that is read aloud. Clarification 2: Students will also note where the rhyme is coming, e.g., at the end of a line.

ELA.K.R.2 Reading Informational Text Structure

ELA.K.R.2.1: Use titles, headings, and illustrations to predict and confirm the topic of texts.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: The step of confirming the prediction is essential to mastery of this benchmark. Central Idea


ELA.K.R.2.2: Identify the topic of and multiple details in a text. Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: The topic is the general subject of the text, a word or a short phrase describing what the text is about. For example, the main topic of the book Why Should I Recycle? is recycling. Argument

ELA.K.R.2.4: Explain the difference between opinions and facts about a topic.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: Students will explain which statements are fact and which are opinion within a text.

Clarification 2: Students will orally explain that facts are things that a person knows about something and that can be proven true or false. Students will orally explain that opinions are what a person thinks about something, often related to feelings or beliefs. Opinions cannot be proven true or false. Example: “Dogs need food and water to survive” is a fact. It can be proven to be true. “Dogs are the best pets” is an opinion. It’s what someone may think, but it can’t be proven.


ELA.K.R.3 Reading Across Genres Interpreting Figurative Language

ELA.K.R.3.1: Identify and explain descriptive words in text(s).

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: Students will explain examples of descriptive words in text and how they add meaning.

Clarification 2: Students will be introduced to the academic vocabulary word “adjective.” However, students are not expected to use the word independently. Discussion should focus on how the descriptive words add meaning to the text. Paraphrasing and Summarizing.


ELA.K.R.3.2: Retell a text orally to enhance comprehension:
     a. Use main character(s), setting, and important events for a story.
     b. Use topic and details for an informational text.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: Most grade-level texts are appropriate for this benchmark. Comparative Reading


ELA.K.R.3.3: Compare and contrast characters’ experiences in stories.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: Students will orally compare and contrast the experiences that characters have had, comparing them to those experienced by other characters, in the same story or a different story. Those experiences can be expressed as events, feelings, or behaviors. Communication.


ELA.K.C.1 Communicating Through Writing Handwriting
ELA.K.C.1.1: Print many upper- and lowercase letters.

Benchmark Clarifications: Clarification

1: Students should attend to spacing between letters. Clarification
2: Of the many letters students need to be able to print, all vowels must be included. For example, a student who can print 22 letters, both upper- and lowercase, but not “a” or “A” has not mastered the benchmark. Narrative Writing


ELA.K.C.1.2: Using a combination of drawing, dictating, and/or writing, create narratives with the events in chronological order.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: The product can be written, drawn, dictated, or a combination of all.
Clarification 2: See Writing Types. 30 Argumentative Writing


ELA.K.C.1.3: Using a combination of drawing, dictating, and/or writing, express opinions about a topic or text with at least one supporting reason.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: The product can be written, oral, drawn, dictated, or a combination of all.
Clarification 2: See Writing Types.


Expository Writing
ELA.K.C.1.4: Using a combination of drawing, dictating, and/or writing, provide factual information about a topic.

Benchmark Clarifications:
Clarification 1: The product can be written, drawn, dictated, or a combination of all. Clarification 2: Some opinion can be added to the information, but it should mostly be factual. It is important that students understand the difference between writing to explain and writing to express an opinion.


Clarification 3: See Writing Types. Improving Writing


ELA.K.C.1.5: With guidance and support from adults, improve drawing and writing, as needed, by planning, revising, and editing.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: “As needed” refers to the fact that sometimes instruction will focus on a specific skill or part of the process. For example, a lesson may focus on planning. In those instances, only the planning step would be focused on. By the end of the year, students should have ample opportunities to engage in planning, revising, and editing.


ELA.K.C.2 Communicating Orally Oral Presentation
ELA.K.C.2.1: Present information orally using complete sentences.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: For further guidance, see the Elementary Oral Communication Rubric. 


ELA.K.C.3 Following Conventions Conventions
ELA.K.C.3.1: Follow the rules of standard English grammar, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling appropriate to grade level.

Benchmark Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Skills to be mastered at this grade level are as follows:

      Begin each sentence with a capital letter and use ending punctuation.
      Capitalize the days of the week, the months of the year, and the pronoun I.
      Form regular plural nouns orally by adding /s/ or /es/.
      Use interrogatives to ask questions. Skills to be implemented but not yet mastered are as
          follows:
      Capitalize proper nouns.
      Form and use simple verb tenses for regular verbs by adding the affix -ed.
      Form and use complete simple sentences.
      Use possessives.
      Use subject-verb agreement in simple sentences.

Clarification 2: See Convention Progression by Grade Level for more information.

ELA.K.C.4 Researching Researching and Using Information
ELA.K.C.4.1: Recall information to answer a question about a single topic.
ELA.K.C.5 Creating and Collaborating Multimedia
ELA.K.C.5.1: Use a multimedia element to enhance oral or written tasks.

Benchmark Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Multimedia elements may include, but are not limited to, a drawing, picture, artifact, audio or digital representation. At this grade level, the element should relate to the task but that relationship may be tangential. It does not require but can include the use of computers.


Vocabulary
ELA.K.V.1 Finding Meaning Academic Vocabulary
ELA.K.V.1.1: Recognize and appropriately use grade-level academic vocabulary in speaking and writing.

Benchmark Clarifications:
Clarification 1: Grade-level academic vocabulary consists of words that are likely to appear across subject areas for the current grade level and beyond, are vital to comprehension, critical for academic discussions and writing, and usually require explicit instruction.


Morphology
ELA.K.V.1.2: Ask and answer questions about unfamiliar words in grade-level content. Context and Connotation
ELA.K.V.1.3: Identify and sort common words into basic categories, relating vocabulary to background knowledge.

Benchmark Clarifications:

Clarification 1: Instruction for this benchmark should include text read-alouds and think-alouds aimed at building and activating background knowledge. Review of words learned in this way is critical to building background knowledge and related vocabulary. Texts read aloud can be two grade levels higher than student reading level.


Clarification 2: See Context Clues and Word Relationships.